Thursday, September 14, 2006

GOP Senators and Powell Defy Bush on Detainees

GOP Senators and Powell Defy Bush on Detainees

FIVE LIVES OF VANDE MATARAM by Sabyasachi Bhattacahrya

Indian Express
August 24, 2006

by Sabyasachi Bhattacharya

The history of the national song has imbued it with diverse symbolism

The appropriation of cultural creations for
political purposes may be inevitable, but it
should not happen in a state of arrogant
ignorance. The low level of knowledge now on
display in the statements and actions of many
political parties in respect of the song, Vande
Mataram, is surprising. It is surprising because
the song has been part of the language of Indian
politics for over a century. At this moment we
see a rerun of an old series of actions and
reactions intended to stage an enactment of
identity assertions.

The traditional appeal of the captivating lyric,
celebrating the beauty of the motherland, remains
as strong as ever so far as the general public is
concerned. One evidence of this is its popularity
set to
music composed by A.R. Rahman. And yet
political squabbles over the song continue.
Coverage in the electronic media provides
entertainment in juxtaposing the so-called Hindu
and Muslim points of view, a mode of presentation
which allows no other reading of the song.
Actually the meanings read into the poem have
differed widely in the 130 years since it was
written. In terms of the meanings thus attributed
there are about five different phases.

In the beginning were just the words. Reportedly
one of the leading defenders of the song and of
Hindutva has said that the song was written by
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee to honour those who
sacrificed their lives for the country. To defend
the truth about the song from such defenders it
needs to be said that when Bankim first wrote it
in the early 1870s it was just a beautiful hymn
to the motherland, richly-watered,
richly-fruited, dark with the crops of
harvests, sweet of laughter, sweet of speech, the
giver of bliss. For several years these first two
stanzas remained unpublished. In 1881 this poem
was included by Bankim in the novel, Anandamath,
and now it was expanded to endow the motherland
with militant religious symbolism as the context
of the narrative demanded.

However, the icon of the motherland, "terrible
with the clamour of seventy million throats",
likened to "Durga holding ten weapons of war"
etc, entered the public imagination much later.
This was from the beginning of Bengal's Swadeshi
agitation in 1905. It was sung in the Congress
session in Benaras in 1905 (music composed by
Tagore), in anti-Partition processions in
Calcutta led by Tagore, in meetings addressed by
Aurobindo Ghose. The latter hailed Bankim as the
rishi of nationalism and translated the poem into
English. Many translations were made, including
one by
Subramaniya Bharathi in 1905. Likewise,
far away from Bengal, Mahatma Gandhi took note of
the song as early as 1905. What is more, Vande
Mataram became a slogan for the common man, to
the extent he participated in anti-British
agitations. Many of the militant nationalists
faced bullets or the gallows with that slogan on
their lips. Thus Vande Mataram became sanctified
as an intrinsic part of the memories of the fight
for freedom.

A third phase in the life of the song began in
the 1930s when objections began to be raised
against the song on two grounds: first, its
association with Anandamath, which depicted the
Muslims of the Nawabi era of the 1770s in Bengal
in a poor light; second, the religious imagery
and idolatry implicit in the stanzas of the poem
following the first two. (Today those innocent of
any knowledge of the song and the novel probably
mistake the part for the whole). M.A. Jinnah,
well as a number of Muslim legislators in the
provincial assemblies elected in 1937, became
vociferous against the recitation or singing of
Vande Mataram, a practice introduced by
provincial Congress governments. In response to
this, as well as pressure of Congress members,
Jawaharlal Nehru in October 1937 wrote to Tagore
asking for his opinion regarding the suitability
of the song as a national anthem. The judgement
Nehru received was that the first two stanzas of
Vande Mataram should be accepted; as for the
later part of the verse, Tagore thought it might
offend monotheists, but the song was inextricably
associated with the freedom movement and "the
sacrifices of the best of our youths" since 1905.

Acting upon this advice the Congress Working
Committee recommended that "wherever the Vande
Mataram is sung at national gatherings, only the
first two stanzas should be sung". Jinnah wrote
Nehru in March 1938 that the decision was not
to his satisfaction but the Congress stuck to it;
in any event, there was a proviso that any one
who wished not to participate was free to do so.
>From then on the song was a dividing line between
those who doubted the wisdom of this compromise
(C. Rajgopalachari) and those, led by Nehru, who
were opposed to making the song obligatory. In
1939 some provincial governments - like Bihar and
Central Provinces - issued specific instructions
to education departments clarifying that the song
was not obligatory. A fallout was that the slogan
'Vande Mataram' acquired special connotation to
those who valued the Hindu symbolism in the song
and by 1946-47 in some parts of India it became
in inter-communal conflicts the battle cry of the
Hindu community. The earliest instance of Hindu
Mahasabha support to the sanctification of the
song is perhaps the 'Vande Mataram
Day' organised
by the party in 1937.

The fifth and most recent phase in the life of
the song commenced in the Constituent Assembly on
January 24, 1950, when it was sung at the end of
its deliberations. It was resolved that while
Jana Gana Mana was identified as the national
anthem, equally with it Vande Mataram was to be
recognised. It was a motion from the chair, moved
by Rajendra Prasad himself, and unlike other
parts of the Constitution it was never debated
upon in the Constituent Assembly. But the matter
continues to be debated until today. This is not
unexpected, given the eventful history of this
song. Judging by various erroneous statements
which are now being made, it is vitally important
to bear in mind what happened in the past. That
is because the memories of the past, rightly or
wrongly, constitute our present.

The writer, a former VC of Visva Bharati
University, Santiniketan,
is the author of 'Vande
Mataram: The Biography of a Song' (Penguin)

What is RMTS - as of today...

The Rural Mathematics Talent Search Examination (RMTS) is a program to identify and support promising youngsters in rural hinterland of India’s eastern state of Orissa. Three years ago two students who worked as tea cup washers, and continue as such even today to supplement their meager family income, were selected by the RMTS program. However in the last “mathematics boot camp”, attended by their school teacher, they were independently evaluated to earn an equivalent of 85% for Grade 10! And this without tuitions and coaching which their urban compatriots and those from well to do families get. When the two came to the 1st RMTS Math camp in 2004 they borrowed shirts from a neighbor. The RMTS program that made possible this life transforming experience of the two youngsters, and many others, is the subject of this essay.

After umpteen number of years of almost no rural kids being selected for the Orissa State Math Olympiad camps (only one got selected more than 5 years back), this year’s camp had 5 rural kids among 100. And they are at the top of the camp. How did it happen?
Again the answer is the RMTS program and its training camps for the rural kids.

A brief History of RMTS:
Dr. Swadheenananda Pattanayak, director of Institute of Mathematics and Applications (IMA), Bhubaneswar, used to routinely conduct the annual Orissa Mathematics Olympiad and screen candidates to represent Orissa in the National (Indian) finals. These students make it to a pool from which those representing India in International Math Olympiad are selected. Dr. Pattanayak restlessly observed that though 80 % of Orissans live in villages, hardly anyone among the 100 being selected each year is from rural area.
Concomitantly, Government of India’s Department of Energy (DOE), and the movers and shakers of Science and Technology education establishment of India were getting concerned with another phenomenon: the basic research in Science and Mathematics has become a barren area today, where once stalwarts like Prof. Meghnad Saha, P. C. Mohalanobis, Satyen Bose, Birbal Sahani, et al. bloomed. This lacking was primarily because all the talent that comes up through the school system is being “sponged” out by the likes of IITs and the high paying technology sector. This leaves very little talent behind for basic science and Mathematics research. DOE needed to urgently expand the talent pool to remedy this problem and did not know how. In walked Dr. Pattanayak with a solution. He theorized that up to class five/six rural talents keep up with their urban competition. Thereafter due to various environmental and resource deficiencies the rural kids slowly lose out and wither away. Thus they are not in the Math Olympiad teams, held in class Eight. But the pool size (DOE’s concern) can be expanded, if we pick up rural kids at class six through a test and identify the talents before they get lost.
He proposed that he conduct a separate competition for only rural kids, defined as not living in Notified Area Council (NAC) or more urban areas, in the same line as Math Olympiad but at class six level, and then go on to select the best and brightest logical minds (good for mathematical and scientific fields) and nurture them. He asked for funds to initially hold two annual camps per year for 3 years (six camps total) of the selected kids to accentuate their inborn mathematical ability. In these camps today, conducted by IMA, the best mathematical brains of Orissa, nurture the talents unearthed. The DOE agreed and RMTS program, a pioneering effort and first in India, was born. This is the 4th year the tests would be conducted and mobilization for it has started (test date is September 10th, 2006). A web site gives all the related info:
The result of holding the tests and the camps has been significant. For the 1st time this year (i.e. after just 2 years), three (3) of the rural students competed and got into the 30 students pool of State Math Olympiad finalists.
To encourage these students Dr. Pattanayak requested a long time friend to fund 30 scholarships @1500/year for the best among them. The scholarships are to continue for 5 years till these students graduate from high schools. Thus started the Late Kamala Pada Das Memorial Rural Math scholarships in 2003.
The Goal of this Rural Math Talent Search (RMTS) program:
The prime goal is to promote meritocracy through logical thinking and equal access to quality education of Mathematics and Science.
1. To spot talents in Mathematics in rural areas of Orissa state at Class-VI level
2. Train them regularly for three years, in 2 camps per year to hone their talent and skills.
3. Through such periodic training prepare them to compete with better equipped urban children.
4. Kindle an interest in solving challenging problems in mathematics.
5. Generate greater interest in education in general and Mathematics in particular.
6. Stem the tide of dropouts, by bringing back enthusiasm for education through these kids, using these kids as harbinger of change.
7. Train teachers into practicing teaching in a cooperative environment armed with modern methods of teaching mathematics.
Our experience of last three years has shown that this is working.
Current Status of RMTS:
Starting in 2003 nearly 10 thousand plus students from all 30 districts of Orissa have taken part in these tests. RMTS is not an ordinary test; it seeks to unearth kids with a logical mind, good for mathematical fields. Mathematics is the language of science and technology like English is the language for history or sociology or philosophy. One has a history and other has a future. Promoters of RMTS believe that social change and societal mobility can be brought about by education and particularly science and technology education. Yet the tragedy of the current education system is that the logical minds get bored and get shut off due to the rote learning system in vogue.
RMTS was born in 2003 with a test and 30 scholarships by a single donor. All scholarships are awarded for 5 years to class 10. It was increased in 2004 to 100 and in 2005 to 165 scholarships, when multiple donors pitched in. The scholarships are equally distributed between the 3 regions of Orissa, Western, Southern and Coastal Orissa. Scholarship money is Rs. 1500 / year. Also they are awarded keeping in mind the need for affirmative action, regarding gender (women), ethnicity and caste (Adivasi and Harijon).
To keep things transparent the name of the donors is posted on the web.
And Indian donors:
In the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 about Rs. 5 lakhs plus have been raised and awarded as scholarships.
The upcoming RMTS 2006 will be the 4th RMTS and award 200 scholarships.
In 2005 we reached all 30 districts. 2006 goal is to reach all the 314 blocks of Orissa.
Like Ramanujan who was not at the top of his class, many of RMTS scholars were not in the top of their class, but flourishing, once their niche talent has been found.
There are nearly 800 thousand students in class VI and we have reached only 5 thou.
We have realized that we have hit upon a winning formula but our target rural talents are still not within reach.

Supporting Organizations:

1. Institute of Mathematics and Applications (IMA), BBSR, is in the lead. They conduct the test and run the camps. They select the RMTS scholars and monitor them. Its first director and current director is Dr. Swadhinananda Pattanayak. Its Chair Dr. Gokulananda Das is another famous Mathematician of Orissa and an ex-Vice Chancellor of the prestigious Utkal University. Prof. P. C. Das retired professor of Mathematics of Kanpur IIT is another luminary involved with RMTS, in addition to many well meaning volunteers.
2. The Dept. of Energy, Government of India (DOE, GOI) helps out with the costs incurred in running the six camps for each batch. They have been asking IMA to extend the program to other states. IMA is reluctant to expand before consolidating RMTS in Orissa. However IMA has offered to host resident Fellows, who will stay in IMA and take part in running of camps and RMTS tests. Thus trained they can go back and start RMTS in their own states. This will be probably happen from 2007.
3. Other than IMA, there are three other organizations that are helping in various ways.
• Sustainable Educational and Economic Development Society (SEEDS), a US non-profit founded by student activists in the early 1990s.
a. It raises funds for RMTS and spreads the word around among the Non Resident Orissans (NRO) as well as other Non-resident Indians. SEEDS sends the money to Vikas Charitable Trust (VCT), who has FERA authorization to accept foreign funds. VCT receives money, sends the money to individual scholars and keeps the account details of the disbursals.
b. SEEDS also uses its network in USA to persuade the NRO (members of SEEDS or friends) in USA to promote RMTS in their village/block and district through their own family or friend or school connections – an essential tool and methodology to make RMTS successful.

• India Relief and Educational Fund (IREF), Freemont, USA: They also like SEEDS are a body through which tax exempt donations can be made.
• Vikas Charitable Trust (VCT): It is a FERA authorized trust in India. They take foreign donations and distribute it to the RMTS scholars and do mentoring and monitoring of them. In addition, they being a tax exempt Trust, also collect donations from Indian patrons of RMTS and distribute them to the scholars as they do for the overseas patrons.

How RMTS test is conducted:
1. IMA, BBSR, plans out the program schedule (last date of applications, date of test, accredited centers etc), prepares the question papers, application forms etc.
2. The mass education dept sends out a circular to the 314 Blocks development officers, who send it to the Sub Inspectors of Schools (SI) attached to the blocks. SI sends it to Middle school Head Masters and the middle school teachers take the initiative to organize it.
3. The students pay a nominal entry fee (Rs. 5) and send in their applications back to IMA.
4. IMA sends back the Question papers and note books to the centers where examination is held at a particular day and time (e.g., September 10, 2006 this year.)
5. The papers are sent back to the IMA for evaluation, where they are evaluated.
6. The regional distribution of scholarships and affirmative action steps are taken in to consideration before the recipients of the scholarships are decided.
Camp Facilities Physical:
So far these are the only two places where we, Institute of Mathematics (IMA) have had camps for children selected under RMTS program.
1. State Institute of Rural Development (SIRD) Hostel, Bhubaneswar (BBSR):
The Camps since 2004(for the 2003 batch) were held at the State Institute of Rural Development (SIRD) Hostel under the Panchayati Raj Department, Government of Orissa. The mess is hygienically maintained. There is running water in the bath rooms and safe drinking water. Diet is nutritionally balanced. There is also regular medical check up with provision free hospitalization in case of necessity. Last time two children were diagnosed with cerebral malaria. Both of them were hospitalized at Institute of Mathematics (IMA) cost till they were cured and discharged.
2. Homi Bhabha Hostel and Gopabandhu Hostel, Regional Institute of Education, Bhubaneswar:
This year, some of the camps have been held in the Regional Institute of Education, Bhubaneswar. The children were accommodated in the Homi Bhabha Hostel and Gopabandhu Hostel. Sanitary conditions in these hostels are even better than those of the SIRD Hostel. The classes were taken in the Demonstration
Multipurpose School of the Regional Institute of Education. The facilities here are far superior to SIRD.

We might hold camps in the Gopabandhu Academy of Administration (where OAS officers are trained), in near future. We have had some of the camps for B.Sc. students, held there, already. As we have to depend on others it is difficult to schedule our camps well in advance.
In a little more than a year our own campus (under construction) will be completed and things will be even better.
Camps organization and other facilities:
These camps have been held for last 3years and this will be the 4th year. During the camps Prof. Swadheenananda Pattanayak stays with the kids in the camps along with his wife Dr. Sumitra Patel. They teach the kids attending the camp. So do Prof Gokulananda Das, Prof. P. C. Das and many other young and old PhD students and professors from IITs and other colleges, many of whom were students of Dr. Pattanayak.

They eat the same food, go through the same schedule and teach and live with them filling the evenings with impromptu cultural programs. These camps have no barrier of caste, class, religion or gender. The teachers live and study side by side with the students, where the experts teach. Thus they gain a lot in self-esteem in these short few days. The camps are usually closed with a dignitary of the state like a minister visiting on the closing day. The Chief Minister of the state on quite a few occasions has come and distributed the prizes among the scholars of different competitions held while in camp.
Notable Innovations:
1. The promotion of this RMTS is done from abroad taking advantage of the connectivity developing in India, through e-mails, phone calls and other high tech methods like Google talk and Skype.
2. What has been found that response is better when a NRO contacts the local school, he grew up with. To aid this the a blog was used this year to guide NRO(Non Resident Oriyas) to make it happen in their block of residence, to create a new center, etc.
3. All the Block Development Officers e-mails ( were harvested and information sent to them for organizing RMTS in all the blocks. Though this did not help much but it made clear that only the Computer Programmers have access to these e-mails and they don’t have any instructions to pass it on to the education section of the block. Only in two blocks they were passed on to the School Inspectors (SI) for info but there is no confirmation as to what happened.
4. Though not much of an innovation, creation of the web site for RMTS made it easy to communicate info to known and unknown persons both to inform and to serve as a model.
5. Alumni of National Institute of Technology, Rourkela were persuaded to be volunteers by posting on their Yahoogroup info about RMTS. Since NIT Alumni are some of the best students coming out of Orissa they could go to their schools and inspire others by asking them to study hard and appear in RMTS. During these trips they gave their own example: how they came out of their disadvantaged background with hard work and earned a brighter future. This inspiration is unlikely to wear off even if the children do not succeed in RMTS, leaving a long lasting impression.
6. During month of April, 2006, each day, one district’s participation statistics was published on various Yahoogroups that NRIs from Orissa patronize, bringing in many volunteers. The ones used were: ORNET, Agamiorissa, Rengcol etc. Since Orissa has presently 30 districts linking it to month of April with 30 days had good effect. We have learnt to leverage the internet with our small resources.
Future Expansion prospects of the project:
1. We envision/dream that in a couple of years we will go up to 40 thousand participation, with one hundred thirty students per block. That will be a 5% participation in RMTS of 800 thousand kids that are in class six.
2. We would like to really work hard on the southern districts of Orissa (includes the Koraput of KBK, which are the most backward of all the three zones.
3. We envision dividing the state into 5 zones in future, Coastal, North, South, West and Central Orissa, with equal population, and 400 hundred students selected from each zone.
4. The selected students will attend camps in various premier institutes of excellence in Orissa, which will be revamped under the guidance of IMA.
5. We plan to have in each C. D. Block will have a test center. In future we plan a center in every Gram Panchayat and the successful students will be pursued with database or other digital technique till the end of their education. A retrospective study will make sure they are followed up long after they stop attending the camps. We shall develop financial support for these RMTS scholars, thru scholarships and bank loans, so their dreams do not get hindered by money concerns, and they bloom to their full potential.
6. In ten years we will have trained a at least a thousand to 1500, logical, intelligent, emancipated, modern intelligentsia which will provide the future leadership in the state at the grassroots level in education, health care, veterinary, business, commerce et el to make the state come up from bottom to the top, if we can implement the plan properly. To make this happen our retiring intelligentsia need to be tapped.

Annexure 1: Publications/ Presentations on RMTS
1. A new center is rising in Orissa and needs our support by Lalu Mansinha, OSA journal about IMA and RMTS, OSA Journal 2004
2. RMTS and other educational projects – by Sandip K. Dasverma, July 02, 2006, Orissa Society of Americas, Education Seminar
3. Rural Math Talent Search (RMTS) in Orissa, North South Foundation, Review 2006.
4. Sandip’s Blogs, The Mathematics Initiative by Sandip K. Dasverma
5. How to create a RMTS center in the block of your choice by Sandip K. Dasverma.

Annexure 2, Media report:
1. Various media report was initiated by the NRIs, through e-mails and web sites. Tathya thus published the news. Most Oriya news papers pick up their news from here.
2. This year it was published in all the Oriya news papers (Dharitri, Sambada, coordinated by two NROs, Dhirendra Kar (Vice President, OSA) and Prof Chitta Baral of Arizona State University.

Institute of Mathematics and Applications
2nd Floor, Suryakiran Buildings
Sahid Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751007, India
Ph: (0674) 2542164, 2540604

Bio-data of the Principals:

1. Name : Swadheenananda Pattanayak
High School Certificate: 1957
Attended Ravenshaw College, Cuttack 1957-1963
Graduate School in Mathematics fat the, Stoney Brook 1968-1972
Degrees obtained B. Sc (Hons), M. Sc.
Ph.D. from the State University of New York(SUNY) Stony Brook, USA in 1972
Teaching Experience:
Regional Engineering College Rourkela !963-1966
Utkal University 1966-1968
Utkal University 1972-1973
Sambalpur University 1973-1999
Administrative Experience:
Prof. of Mathematics and HOD, Sambalpur University, 1997-1999
Director, newly established Institute of Mathematics and Applications: 1999-2000
Reassumed charges of the Institute of Mathematics and Applications as Director 2002- to date
Research/ Publications / Guide:
Supervised/Guide: 8 Ph.D. Students
Authored 4 books
Edited one Journal in Mathematics, another in Popularization of Mathematics
Authored 20 plus research papers in Mathematics
President: Orissa Mathematical Society 2003-2004

2. Name: Sandip K. Dasverma
High School Certificate: 1957
Attended Ravenshaw College, Cuttack 1957-1961
Degrees obtained B. Sc (Hons),
Regional Engineering College, Rourkela 1961-1965
Degree obtained B. Sc (Mechanical Engineering)
Golden Gate University, San Francisco, 1981-1984
Degree obtained – Master of Business Administration.
Work Experience: 40 years as an Engineer both in India and US.
Ms. Kalinga Tubes and Titagarh Paper Mills, Chouduar, Orissa, 1965-1967
Govt. of Orissa, Asst. Engineer, 1967 to 1979
Mechanical, in Talcher Thermal Power Station,
Aero Engine Factory Project, Sunabeda,
Orissa Construction Corporation (Gate Works Project)
US Experience:
Worked in various US, Consulting Engineering companies 1980 to 2004
(e.g. International Engineering, Bechtel Corporation,
Gibbs and Hill Co, Black & Vetch co.)
Various technical publications, one of which was Awarded Gold Medal in 1977 by Institute of Engineers, India.
More than 40 publications on various subjects, including popular science in magazines and news papers, from Appropriate Technology to Global worming.
Worked as Editor of various Ethnic Magazines in San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Richland, USA.
Writer of popular bloggs on various issues related to Education and development.
Joint Secretary, Institute of Engineers, 1973-1977
Vice President, Mechanical Engineer’s service association, 1976.
Joint convener, Joint Action Committee of Mechanical, Civil & Electrical Engineering Associations 1976-77.
Member, SEEDS (Sustainable, Educational and Economic Development Society), USA.

A Summary: RMTS (Rural Math Talent Search) Examination.

Since 2003 nearly 10 thousand plus students from all 30 districts of Orissa have taken part in these tests. RMTS is not an ordinary test; it seeks to unearth kids with a logical mind, good for Mathematics. Mathematics is the language of science and technology like Oriya or English are the language for history, literature. One has a history and other has a future. For future one needs technology and Mathematics is the language of Technology.
RMTS was born in 2003 with a test and 30 scholarships. All scholarships are awarded for 5 years from class 6 to class 10. Number of scholarships was expanded in 2004 to 100 and in 2005 to 165 scholarships.
The scholarships are equally distributed between the 3 regions of Orissa, namely Western, Southern and Coastal Orissa. Scholarship amount is Rs. 1500 / month.
The upcoming RMTS 2006 will be the 4th RMTS and award 200 scholarships.
In 2005 we reached all 30 districts. 2006 goal is to reach all the 314 blocks of Orissa.
Like Ramanujan who was not at the top of his class, many of RMTS scholars were not in the top of their class. A logical mind gets bored without stimulation, when subject to rote learning. They flourish; once their niche talent has been found and nurtured...
There are nearly 800 thousand students in class VI in Orissa state and we have reached only 5 thousand, in 2005. In 2006 we have reached, 16.5 thousand.
We have realized that we have hit upon a winning formula but our target rural talents are still not within reach.
To help organize centers in all the blocks of Orissa, NRI (rather Non-resident Oriya, NRO) community is being used in innovative ways.
The main RMTS program which both attracts students and makes it a winner are the 6 – 7 day long camps held over 4 years. These camps are financed by the Department of Atomic Energy (DOE), Govt. of India (GOI) and manned by the best mathematicians of Orissa.
NRO community spreads the word, through e-mails and phone calls from far off, so more kids participate in the test. Whether kids have a logical mind we can only be known if only they participate.
Normally these students are not in the top of their class because our present system is geared to rote learning. RMTS gives them not only a chance but takes them to the niche where they perform at the top.

The inspiring rags-to-riches tale of Sarathbabu

The inspiring rags-to-riches tale of Sarathbabu